Instructional design is the creation of learning experiences and materials in a manner that results in the acquisition and application of knowledge and skills. The discipline follows a system of assessing needs, designing a process, developing materials and evaluating their effectiveness. In the context of workplace learning, Instructional Design provides a practical and systematic process for effectively designing effective curricula.

What is an Instructional Designer?

An instructional designer applies this systematic methodology (rooted in instructional theories and models) to design and develop content, experiences, and other solutions to support the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Instructional designers ought to begin by conducting a needs assessment to determine the needs of the learning event, including: what the learner should know and be able to do as a result of the training or learning solution, and what the learners already know and can do.

instructional designer skills

Instructional designers are then responsible for creating the course design and developing all instructional materials, including presentation materials, participant guides, handouts, and job aids or other materials. Instructional designers are commonly also responsible for evaluating training, including assessing what was learned and whether the learning solution led to measurable behavior change.

Basic Components of Instructional Design

While there are a number of instructional design models and processes, many of their components are similar. They include analysis, design, development, and evaluation.


Analysis typically includes understanding the needs and learners including why a training or learning solution is required. It may be the case that training is not the solution and some other type of performance improvement or non-training solution will be recommended. In this stage, you’ll also begin to develop the goals of the training, including learning objectives, and determine how the training will be delivered.

Design & Development

Design and development includes the actual design and development of the instructional materials or determining the delivery methods to be used. It often includes drafting curriculum and lesson plans, developing any instructional materials including presentations, e-learning, job aids, participant guides, and anything else to be used in the training.


Evaluation looks at how you determine if your training or learning solution was successful. Did it create a measurable impact on the learner’s behavior and did that lead to the desired results back on the job? There are a number popular evaluation models to consider, including:

  • Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Training Evaluation
  • Brinkerhoff’s Success Case Method
  • Philips ROI Methodology
  • Learning-Transfer Evaluation Model (LTEM)

Instructional Design Model

While ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) continues to be one of the most widely used instructional design models, there are a number of other models to consider. In recent years, there has been a push to utilize more agile, iterative approaches, including Michael Allen’s Successive Approximation Model (SAM). Agile models, such as SAM involve shorter design sprints where a prototype is quickly created, reviewed, and revised, with the process repeating until stakeholders are satisfied.

Common instructional design models include:

  • Cathy Moore’s Action Mapping
  • Dick and Carey Model
  • Kemp Design Model
  • Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction
  • SAM (Successive Approximation Model)
  • Agile or rapid prototyping

The Future of Instructional Design

Whether you’re developing classroom instruction, an e-learning course, or an on-demand performance support solution following sound instructional design processes will help you create better more successful solutions.

As the business world continues to change, so do organizations and their learning functions. Flexibility, creativity, and innovation are becoming more valued. As a result, agile and iterative design models becoming more popular. Instructional designers are also borrowing more elements from the areas of User Experience (UX) Design and Design Thinking. No matter where the training and talent development field goes or what technologies are on the horizon, a solid background in instructional design will always be valuable.